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Part of the equation seen on Valenzettiequation.com, though this may not necessarily be canon. 
The Valenzetti Equation is the mathematical equation developed by the reclusive Princeton University mathematician Enzo Valenzetti. Its creation was the result of efforts made following the Cuban Missile Crisis by the United States and the Soviet Union to find a solution to the hostility and danger of imminent global disaster created by the Cold War. The equation was secretly commissioned through the UN Security Council and is used to predict the time of human extinction.
According to the 1975 orientation film in the Sri Lanka Video, the Valenzetti Equation "predicts the exact number of years and months until humanity extinguishes itself."
Unknown man writing the Valenzetti Equation on a chalkboard in the Sri Lanka Video. 
During the video, Alvar Hanso also states that the radio transmitter on the Island, will "broadcast the core numerical values of the Valenzetti Equation." The numbers: 4, 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42 are explained in the Sri Lanka Video as the numerical values to the core environmental and human factors of the Valenzetti Equation. Alvar Hanso also states in the video that the purpose of the DHARMA Initiative is to change the numerical values of any one of the core factors in the equation in order to give humanity a chance to survive by, effectively, changing doomsday. However, Thomas Mittelwerk reveals that as of 2006, they have failed to change the values through manipulating the environment, as the equation continues to arrive at the same six numbers. It is unknown how or if the most recent calculation of the equation is automatically reflected in the radio transmissions.
Rachel Blake also learned that the Hanso Foundation was forcing savants at the Vik Institute in Iceland to run the equation over and over. Somehow, five hieroglyphic symbols were involved in the calculations (Armand Zander described them as "representative"), the same hieroglyphs seen on the countdown timer in the Swan station.
The Blast Door Map included a reference to the equation; a zone on the island is marked as being of "low relevance to Valenzettirelated research activity".
The book
The book's logo 
Main Article: The Valenzetti Equation (book)
Gary Troup, the mystery writer who died on Oceanic Flight 815, wrote a now outofprint book called The Valenzetti Equation about Valenzetti and his apocalyptic equation. Apparently, Alvar Hanso bought and owns all the only known copies, along with distribution rights etc.
Wikipedia
An article was posted at Wikipedia about The Valenzetti Equation and Enzo Valenzetti and was subsequently cited by Speaker as "VERY accurate", indicating it is a legitimate part of The Lost Experience.
This was the part about the Valenzetti Equation:
“ 
Valenzetti Though shrouded in mystery, this much is known about the Valenzetti Equation: it is a According to Troup—whose research is primarily based on interviews with "UN members" Less than a year later, Valenzetti returned with his eponymous equation—which, reportedly, 
” 
Doomsday equation
Something similar to the Valenzetti equation exists; it is not actually an equation but rather an argument presented using simple mathematics and is not at all mysterious. The Doomsday argument (DA) is a probabilistic argument that claims to predict the future lifetime of the human race given only an estimate of the total number of humans born so far.
External links
 Wikipedia entry in the Lost Experience article
 E! Interview, which includes reference to the numbers
 Mathematical expressions producing 4, 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42