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The Incident (event)
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Whatever Happened, Happened
The efforts of Jack and Sayid to stop the accident at the Swan actually allows the Swan to be built. When the DI crew unleashes the energy, the explosion of the bomb reseals it. This allows the leak to be contained, and as a result it is covered in concrete, and the button protocol has time to be established. Ironically, the efforts of Jack to stop the events that caused the 815 crash actually ensure that they do happen.
The Pan-Temporal Exponential Nuke Feedback Loop Theory
- If one presumes that "What Ever Happened, Happened" and if the energies released during The Incident cause the island's electromagnetic anomalies to be present during all of the island's history, then the detonation of the nuclear warhead adds to the power of its own blast exponentially via some kind of compound feedback loop, thus breaking the law of the conservation of energy and creating enough power to destroy the world, universe, etc.
- The Incident is the H bomb. But not only the H Bomb. When Jack Through the bomb down the Electromagnetic pocket. It didnt go off. So When Juliet found her self alive at the bottom. There already has been a significant amount of time. Enough time for the Electromagnetic pocket to "do something" When Juliet detonated the bomb, the electromagnetic pocket created a shield of energy causing the bomb to explode, but be contained. The force the bomb created is still there. But was not set loose. Thats why you have to push the button. To keep the Electromagnetic pocket from releasing the Atomic Explosion.
The Bomb Never Detonated
Without launching into discussions over whether or not Jack and friends caused the Incident, because that's a whole different argument, the bomb never detonated.
As spoken by Ms. Hawking herself, "The Universe has a way of . . . course correcting." With the time-shift group/Sun and Aaron-less Oceanic 6 back in the DI, they were disrupting the natural course of time. Although "Whatever happened, happened," they began to threaten the stability of time.
This is proven by Daniel's theory of variables. Nobody can actually change the flow of time, but individuals can cause ripples to go through that dimension of space-time, disrupting other universes.
When The Superb group of Extraordinary Islanders went to the Swan Work Site to prevent them from building the station with the intent of detonating a hydrogen bomb, they did not know the true magnitude that their actions would cause.
According to the multiverse theory, every possible outcome that can exist, will. So that means there is an outcome (an unnumbered mass of outcomes likely above the dectillions, actually) where Oceanic 815 did indeed land. As stated above, when you play with time travel and the variable of individuals, you start to send ripples through space-time, disturbing these other outcomes.
Therefore, what we saw was the creation of a massive, enormous paradox. After LaFleur's Merry Band of Adventurers dropped the bomb at the worksite, as they had already done (whatever happened, happened) and Juliet attempted to detonate the bomb at the bottom of the shaft, she sent ripples of truly enormous proportions across different universes. Multiple possible outcomes of the same timeline began to feed back into eachother, leading to the paradox.
Think of it as a microphone attached to a speaker. The microphone represents one universe, the speaker, a different one. When the variables of humans appear and create ripples in space-time, even though they have not changed the actual timeline of their own universe, it disturbs the flow of space-time. This can be represented by a movement of the microphone closer to the speaker. The larger the action by the variable, the larger the shift of the microphone and smaller the space between the speaker and microphone.
As most of us (including Sayid) know, when you move a microphone close to the speaker it is attached to, it creates a feedback loop (in the form of that awful, horrible screeching sound!). The feedback loop is both a literal and figurative metaphor. It represents the paradox (figuratively) but demonstrates how these universes begin feed into other universes (literally).
This event is truly rare, perhaps only ever happening on The Island with the exception of a few odd cases, like Desmond. However, the Oceanic badasses created ripples far too great for the universe to handle.
So it followed Eloise' advice. It course corrected.
This came in the form of what many believed to be the bomb detonation at the end of Season 5, but was actually a time shift greater than anything they had ever experienced, hence the flash of light and loud sound. The universe sent them back to their own time to prevent further ripples, and, 30 years earlier, the DI finally managed to cover up the pocket they had opened, albeit temporarily, and unwittingly also burying an un-detonated plutonium core from a hydrogen bomb, which remains undisturbed at the bottom of the Swan Work Site to this very day.