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The scale references the Egyptian deity Anubis. The jackal or dog-headed God has been previously seen when Ben fell while entering the tunnels beneath the temple wall. The image was of Anubis as a carving in the stone on the wall possibly summoning "the monster". Anubis is known to be associated with mummification and the afterlife. In Egyptian belief, Anubis measured the hearts of the dead on the Scale of Justice (similar to the one in "The Substitute"), and weighs it against the feather of Ma'at, the God of justice. This process is said to determine whether or not the person to whom the heart belongs is worthy to enter the realm of the dead. If the heart was lighter than the feather, then this soul could live forever. If this person fails the test, though, and their heart is heavier than the feather, then their heart is fed to the monster or demon Ammit the Destroyer.
Characters represent Egyptian Gods
Jack represents the Egyptian God Anubis also represented by Jacob but Jacob is the God Ra. Anubis's father was Set before he became viewed as evil represented by Christian Shephard and then Anubis's dad was considered to be Osiris represented by Locke. Anubis was the central deity in Egyptian mythology during the first iteration until Osiris began to be featured more. This is represented by Jack giving way to Locke and leaving the Island. Osiris was killed by his brother Set which is represented by Ben and he sent him down the Nile in a coffin and then dismembered him.
Osiris's wife, Isis, found the eight parts of Osiris's body that were dismembered and gave the rites to resurrect Osiris. If you would like the plane crash explained read Thoth's deal made to keep a boat with all the Egyptian gods traveling through the sky out of one-thirtieth of the moon's light. Thoth is Richard who is an arbitrator between good and evil making sure that one side does not gain leeway over the other. Thoth has also been around since the beginning of time. Set redeems himself by fighting his dual aspect which is the Smoke Monster Apep every night in order to make sure that the boat Thoth organized makes it through the sky each night and is not swallowed by Apep.
Represents balance between Jacob/MIB
The scale represents the strength of the MiB and Jacob. This is why Jacob told Richard to give the MiB the white stone after Richard decided to follow Jacob's orders in Ab Aeterno. In The Substitute the MiB was able to recruit Sawyer for his cause, thus making it a win for the black side. There is an early hint to this "inside joke" in Pilot, Part 2 when John explains to Walt the rules of Backgammon.