Many references on Lost are made to history and historical figures.

Season 1

"Pilot, Part 2"

A modern backgammon set

Mesopotamia: Locke mentions that backgammon sets were found in the ruins of ancient Mesopotamia, widely considered the cradle of civilization.


Sir Winston S. Churchill

Winston Churchill: Lucy shows Charlie a cigarette case that was owned by this noted English statesman, orator and strategist.

"The Greater Good"

Iraqi Republican Guard symbol

The Iraqi Republican Guard: The core of the Iraqi military, it was originally formed to be Saddam Hussein's bodyguard, but was expanded into a large military force.

Season 2


Juan Ponce de León

Ponce de León: Sawyer calls Ana Lucia "Ponce de León," referring to the Spanish explorer.


The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian

The Epic of Gilgamesh: This is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia. While completing a crossword puzzle, Locke, for clue 42 down, "friend of Enkidu," gives the answer "Gilgamesh."

"The Hunting Party"

Daniel Boone

Daniel Boone: Sawyer calls Locke "Daniel Boone," after the American pioneer and hunter whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States.

JFK assassination

John F. Kennedy assassination: After Jack, Locke, and Sawyer hear a gunfight ahead of them, they find three shell casings left behind yet claim to have heard seven shots fired. This is a reference to the Warren Commission for the assassination of American President John F. Kennedy, which concluded that three shots were fired, as three shells were found in the Texas School Book Depository. However, more than three gunshots are audible in video evidence of the event.

Luger P08 pistol from World War II

World War II: Tom is using a Luger P08 pistol, which is notorious for its usage by the Nazis during World War II.

Title page of play that gave rise to phrase "curiosity killed the cat"

Curiosity killed the cat: "You know the other one about curiosity, don't you Jack?", asks Tom. He is referring to this famous proverb, used to warn against being too inquisitive lest one comes to harm. The earliest printed reference to the origin of this proverb is attributed to British playwright Ben Jonson in his 1598 play, Every Man in His Humour.

"The Long Con"

Mugshot of Iva Toguri, the most infamous "Tokyo Rose"

Tokyo Rose: Sawyer calls Sun "Tokyo Rose," a generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II to any of approximately twenty English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda.


Daniel Boone

Daniel Boone: Sawyer calls Jack "Daniel Boone," after the American pioneer and hunter whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States.

Season 3

"The Glass Ballerina"

Ben reveals to Jack several news headlines from late 2004:

Christopher Reeve

U.S. Presidential seal

    • America reelects George W. Bush as President. This actually happened on November 2, 2004.

Boston Red Sox cap insignia

    • The Boston Red Sox win the World Series. This actually happened on October 27, 2004.
"Stranger in a Strange Land"

The upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.

An eye for an eye: This phrase, said by Alex, is in reference to a law that formed part of the ancient Mesopotamian Hammurabi's Code.

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong: The text of Jack's tattoo is taken from a poem by this Chinese Marxist military and political leader and philosopher.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan. When sailing from the Hydra island, Sawyer calls Kate "Magellan," after this Portuguese-born maritime explorer (1480-1521).

Season 4

"The Beginning of the End"

O.J. Simpson

O.J. Simpson: Jack places a container of orange juice on a table while the TV is visible in the background showing the police chasing Hurley's car. The shot is very similar to shots of the police chasing O.J. Simpson in June 1994.

"The Economist"

Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall: The café in which Sayid and Elsa meet is called "Die Mauer" (the wall), a reference to the Berlin Wall.


Montezuma II

Montezuma: As Hurley flushes the toilet, Sawyer refers to him as "Montezuma," the subdued ruler of the Aztec empire at the beginning of the Spanish conquest of Mexico (1502–1520).

"There's No Place Like Home, Part 2"

Hurley's "Molly Fischer" Fruit Roll-Up

Molly Fisher: Hurley is seen opening a Fruit Roll-Up with the words "Molly Fischer" on it where the name of the flavor should be. "Molly Fisher" is the name of a mysterious rock in Kent, Connecticut near a body of water known as the Hatch Pond. It appears to have inscriptions of runes and hieroglyphs that have yet to be deciphered. [1] [2]



Daniel examines Jughead

Operation Castle: This was the name of a series of nuclear tests that took place in March/April 1954 in Bikini Atoll. "Jughead" was the code name of one of seven bombs tested in the series.

This episode's "Jughead" appears to be a Mark 16 nuclear bomb. The Mark 16 is more properly designated TX-16/EC-16 as it only existed in Experimental/Emergency Capability versions. Its design yield was 6-8 megatons. Only five units ever manufactured, in January 1954, and deployed in an interim "emergency capability" role with the designation EC-16. By April 1954 they were all retired.

U.S. Army logo

US Army: The clothing worn by the Others resembles a mid-20th Century US Army or National Guard uniform with nametape. They carry the M1 Garand, the standard infantry rifle issued to US troops from 1936 to 1963 and distributed as surplus to US allies after WWII, suggesting that they took the clothes and weapons of the dead U.S. soldiers.

Prisoners on the march from Bataan to the prison camp, May 1942.

The Death March of Bataan: Sawyer points to Daniel Faraday as being "death-marched" into the jungle. This could be a reference to a significant Philippine historical event that was named the "Death March." The Bataan Death March took place in the Philippines in 1942, and was later accounted as a Japanese war crime.

Latin inscription in the Roman Colosseum

Vulgar Latin. The Others speak Vulgar Latin as their common tongue, a language considered dead that has gone into decline since the 9th century to disappear almost completely from the 17th century on.

"This Place Is Death"

Statue of Hannibal at the Louvre

Hannibal / Carthage: Charlotte remarks that she knows more about Carthage than Hannibal, a war general from Carthage from around 200 BC. He is considered to be one of the greatest military commanders and tacticians through out all of history. Carthage was located in what is modern-day Tunisia, where Charlotte was doing field work before being recruited to the Kahana's mission. Ironically, even though Hannibal is the most famous person associated with Carthage, he only spent one year of his adult life living there. He spent most of his life in Europe and modern day Turkey.

"The Life and Death of Jeremy Bentham"

Life magazine logo

Life: Caesar finds the April 19, 1954 issue of Life magazine, featuring a cover story about hydrogen bomb testing. This magazine is contemporary with the on-Island events of "Jughead".

The Great Sphinx of Giza

Great Sphinx of Giza: When Locke visits Hurley at the Santa Rosa Mental Institute, Hurley is seen painting a picture of what is presumably the Great Sphinx of Giza in Cairo, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world and the oldest known monumental structure.


Sir Winston S. Churchill

Winston Churchill: Sawyer mentions that this English politician used to read every night before going to bed because it helped him think, even during the Blitz of World War II.

"Some Like It Hoth"

Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Hieroglyphs: The lesson Jack erases from the classroom board was about Ancient Egypt and hieroglyphs, a writing style used by the Ancient Egyptians, particularly in religious literature. One of the lines that Jack erases translates as "Writing of the words of God."

"The Variable"

U.S. Marines in Seoul during the Korean War

Korean War: Pierre Chang asks Hurley if he fought in the Korean War, which occurred from 1950 to 1953. Hurley replies that there is no such thing.

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter: This episode takes place in 1977, and Pierre asks Hurley who the current president of the United States is. Jimmy Carter was president from 1977–1981.

"The Incident, Part 1"


Taweret: The giant statue on the Island is of Taweret, the ancient Egyptian deity of protection in pregnancy and childbirth.

Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Hieroglyphs:Jacob's tapestry contains many hieroglyphs, a writing style used by the Ancient Egyptians, particularly in religious literature.

General MacArthur

General MacArthur: A third phrase on Jacob's tapestry reads, "Only the dead have seen the end of war." This is a quote made famous by General MacArthur, who misattributed it to Plato.

Season 6

"Dr. Linus"

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli: A book that Ben finds in Sawyer's stash is titled "Benjamin Disraeli: Justice and Truth in Action." No author's name is shown on the dust jacket. It may be simply a prop, a mock-up, rather than an actual book. Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) was a British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. "Justice is truth in action" is a famous quotation of his. Alice in Wonderland original artist Sir John Tinniel's illustration of the man in white paper in Through the Looking Glass was based on Disraeli.

Napoleon I

Napoleon Bonaparte: Ben teaches about this military and political leader of France, who was banished to the island Elba in 1814.

Charles Cornwallis

Charles Cornwallis: Ben questions Alex about this British Army officer who in 1786 was appointed Governor-General and commander in chief in India. The East India Company Act of 1786 arranged that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility.

British East India Trading Company flag

The East India Trading Company: Ben questions Alex about this early English trading company. The company was formed in 1600 AD for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China. The Charter Act of 1813 asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company. At the time of the Charter, the East India Trading Company's power extended to all of India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.

Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama: A poster of this Portuguese explorer is in Ben's classroom. Vasco da Gama was one of the most successful in the European Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus : A picture of this historical figure is exposed in Ben's classroom. Columbus was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli: Principal Reynolds compares Ben to this 16th century diplomat and political philosopher, known for his cunning and deceitful manipulations. The Prince, his best known work, describes ways that a ruler can control his people. He recommends, among other things, that the prince should be a public figure above reproach, whilst privately acting amorally to achieve his goals. He also notes that sometimes good outcomes happen even though evil deeds are performed.

Yale University insignia

Yale University: In the flash-sideways timeline, Alex Rousseau very much wants to be a college student at this American university, which was established in 1701 in the state of Connecticut. The university was named after Elihu Yale, who was the first major benefactor of the institution. Yale, a successful business man, made his fortune through his work as a representative of The East India Trading Company from 1671 to 1692.

"Ab Aeterno"

The Man in Black's pugio

Pugio: The Man in Black's knife is a pugio, a military dagger used as a sidearm by Roman legionaries. On the sheath there is a depiction of the Roman she-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus.

a CGI rendering of the Tenerife collision

Tenerife Airport Disaster: Richard's home island, Tenerife, was the site of the deadliest plane crash in the history of aviation on March 27th, 1977.

1707 map of northwest Africa showing the fabled island of St. Brendan west of the Canary Islands

St. Brendan Island: There is a legend in the Canary Islands, which Tenerife is part of, of the existence of an eighth island called St. Brendan Island. Throughout the history of the Canary Islands, only a few have alleged to have seen this phantom island. Stories about it have been told by sailors who claim to have landed on its beaches. There are some ancient maps on which the island is drawn.

"The Package"

Giacomo Casanova

Giacomo Casanova: Keamy calls Jin "Casanova" in reference to Giacomo Casanova (1725 – 1798), a Venetian adventurer and author. He was so famous as a womanizer that his name remains synonymous with the art of seduction.