The only person on the island known to have lost an eye was Mikhail Bakunin. However, it was later revealed that Mikhail's right eye was completely scarred over, which presumably precluded him from having use for a glass eye. ("Through the Looking Glass, Part 1")
An artificial eyeball, said to be the world's first, was found in excavations of the ancient Mesopotamian "Burnt City". Also found at this location was an ancient backgammon set, as mentioned by Locke in "Pilot, Part 2".
In the May 12, 2006 podcast Damon & Carlton fielded a question about the glass eyeball. No clear information is revealed, but they joke at length about this and the other prosthetics found on the island.