The flaming arrow attack was orchestrated by the Hostiles against the remaining Oceanic Flight 815 survivors and the science team. It took place near the future beach camp. A notable survivor that died in the attack was Neil "Frogurt".
The survivors began skipping to different moments in the Island's history, and had apparently traveled to points in the island's past and/or future after Ben moved the Island. ("There's No Place Like Home, Part 3") ("Because You Left")
The Others, who led the initial strike, believed the survivors to be U.S. Army troops, who had been trying to test hydrogen bombs on the Island. Richard Alpert believed they had come back to retrieve their hydrogen bomb. ("Jughead")
At the beach, Neil "Frogurt" was getting into a heated argument with the rest of the group. As he complained of their inability to make a fire, he was ironically struck in the chest with a flaming arrow. He was struck several more times in the chest and back and fell to the ground wriggling in pain. As a volley of arrows began to hail on them, the survivors started running toward the tree line. Sawyer yelled out to the survivors to run to the creek. At least five survivors were seen being hit and killed by the arrows. The Others of 1954 speculated that their people eventually killed the rest of the survivors, although no additional corpses were ever shown. ("The Lie") Other survivors who might have been killed include Steve and Craig.
Sawyer and Juliet were separated from the rest of the group, and were captured by Others: "Jones", Cunningham, and Mattingly. They were questioned and threatened by the men, who seemed extremely hostile and violent. As they were about to cut off one of Juliet's hands, Locke, from behind the Others, killed one of them, throwing a knife into Mattingly's chest. ("The Lie")
At the creek, Daniel Faraday, Miles Straume, Charlotte Lewis, and two other unnamed survivors accidentally tripped two landmines put in place by U.S. Army troopers. The two survivors who tripped the mines were immediately killed. The Others apparently saw an opportunity to ambush the rest, and did so just after the mines blew. They were victorious in capturing the science team. ("Jughead")
Other than Juliet, Sawyer, Faraday, Charlotte, Miles, Rose, Bernard, and Vincent, no other survivors have been seen. They are presumed dead by the remaining survivors based on comments made by Ellie, as well as Rose and Bernard, although none of their corpses have ever been shown on-screen. The attack thus caused the death of 18 survivors.